Official citation: “Novel North American Hominins, Next Generation Sequencing of Three Whole Genomes and Associated Studies.” Authors: Ketchum MS, Wojtkiewicz PW, Watts AB, Spence DW, Holzenburg AK, Toler DG, Prychitko TM, Zhang F, Bollinger S, Shoulders R, Smith R. Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Exploration in Zoology. 11 January 2013.
Paper title: Novel North American Hominins, Next Generation Sequencing of Three Whole Genomes 1 and Associated Studies
Paper authors and affiliations: Melba S. Ketchum (Corresponding author), DNA Diagnostics, Nacogdoches, TX 75965
Patrick W. Wojtkiewicz, North Louisiana Criminalistics Laboratory, Shreveport, LA 71101
Aliece B. Watts, Integrated Forensic Laboratories, Inc., Euless, TX 76039
David W. Spence, Southwestern Institute of Forensic Sciences, Dallas, TX 75207
Andreas K. Holzenburg, Texas A&M University, Microscopy & Imaging Center, Department of Biology and 20 Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, College Station, TX 77843-2257
Douglas G. Toler, Huguley Pathology Consultants, P.A., Ft. Worth, TX 76115
Thomas M. Prychitko, Helix Biological Laboratory, Detroit, Michigan, 48202
Fan Zhang, UNT Center for Human Identification, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort 24 Worth, TX 76107
Sarah Bollinger, DNA Diagnostics, Nacogdoches, TX 75965
Ray Shoulders, DNA Diagnostics, Nacogdoches, TX 75965
Ryan Smith, DNA Diagnostics, Nacogdoches, TX 75965
Title of journal and date of publication: Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Exploration in Zoology. 11 January 2013.
Abstract: One hundred eleven samples of blood, tissue, hair, and other types of specimens were studied, characterized and hypothesized to be obtained from elusive hominins in North America commonly referred to as Sasquatch. DNA was extracted and purified from a subset of these samples that survived rigorous screening for wildlife species identification. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing, specific genetic loci sequencing, forensic short tandem repeat (STR) testing, whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) bead array analysis, and next generation whole genome sequencing were conducted on purported Sasquatch DNA samples gathered from various locations in North America. Additionally, histopathologic and electron microscopic examination were performed on a large tissue sample.
The mtDNA whole genome haplotypes obtained were uniformly consistent with modern humans. Of the 20 whole and 10 partial mitochondrial genomes sequenced, 16 diverse haplotypes were found suggesting that these hominins did not originate in a single geographic location.
In contrast, consistent, reproducible, novel data were obtained when nuclear DNA was amplified utilizing various platforms. Nuclear DNA obtained from Sasquatch samples produced novel SNPs, off ladder alleles on human STRs, retained human sequence interspersed with novel sequence, and whole genome SNPs that fell outside the human threshold.
Three of the Sasquatch samples were subjected to next generation whole genome sequencing, each of which independently yielded high quality complete genomes. Analysis of preliminary phylogeny trees derived from supercontigs generated from all three samples showed homology to human chromosome 11 reference sequence hg 19 and to primate sequences. The totality of the DNA evidence suggests the Sasquatch nuclear DNA is a mosaic comprising human DNA interspersed with sequence that is novel but primate in origin.
In summary, our data indicates that the Sasquatch has human mitochondrial DNA but possesses nuclear DNA that is a structural mosaic consisting of human and novel non-human DNA.